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Monday, August 3, 2009

Overview Of The Medium Access Sublayer

Some networks have a single channel that is used for all communication. In these networks, the key design issue is the allocation of this channel among the competing stations wishing to use it. Numerous channel allocation algorithms have been devised like :

- FDM : Dedicate a frequency band to each station.
- TDM : Dedicate a time slot to each station.
- Pure ALOHA : Unsynchronized transmission at any instant.
- Slotted ALOHA : Random transmission in well defined time slots.
- 1-persistent CSMA : Standard carrier sense multiple access.
- Nonpersistent CSMA : Random delay when channel is sensed busy.
- P-persistent CSMA : CSMA, but with probability of p of persisting.
- CSMA/CD : CSMA. but abort on detecting a collision.
- Bit Map : Round robin scheduling using a bit map.
- Binary countdown : Highest numbered ready station goes next.
- Tree walk : Reduced contention by selective enabling.
- Wavelength division : A dynamic FDM scheme for fiber.
- MACA, MACAW : Wireless LAN protocols.
- GSM : FDM plus TDM for cellular radio.
- CDPD : Packet radio within an AMPS channel.
- CDMA : Everybody speak at once but in different language.
- Ethernet : CSMA/CD with binary exponential backoff.
- Token bus : Logical ring on a physical bus.
- Token Ring : Capture the token to send a frame.
- DQDB : Distributed queuing on a two-bus MAN.
- FDDI : Fiber-optic token ring.
- HIPPI : Crossbar using 50-100 twisted pairs.
- Fibre channel : Crossbar using fiber optics.
- SPADE : FDM with dynamic channel allocation.
- ACTS : TDM with centralized slot allocation.
- Binder : TDM with ALOHA when slot owner is not interested.
- Crowther : ALOHA with slot owner getting to keep it.
- Roberts : Channel time reserved in advance by ALOHA.

FDM and TDM are efficient when the number of stations is small and the traffic is continous.
ALOHA protocol, with and without slotting and control, has been proposed when the number of stations is large and variable.
BINARY COUNTDOWN completely eliminates contention.
TREE WALK reduces contention by dynamically dividing the stations into two disjoint groups, one of which is permitted to transmit and one of which is not.
WIRELESS LANs have their own problems and solutions. The biggest problem is caused by hidden stations, so CSMA does not work. MACA attempts to stimulate transmissions around the destination, to make CSMA work better.
GSM, CDPD and CDMA are widely used for mobile computers and telephones.
The IEEE 802 LANs are : CSMA/CD, TOKEN BUS, and TOKEN RING. Each of these has its unique advantages and disadvantages, and each has found its own user community.
FDDI, FAST ETHERNET, HIPPI, and FIBER CHANNEL offer bandwidth in the 100 Mbps range and up.

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